The effectiveness of insecticides in controlling bed bugs in Kuwait
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The effectiveness of insecticides in controlling bed bugs in Kuwait

The effectiveness of insecticides in controlling bed bugs in Kuwait Bed bugs' response to DDT and pyrethroids required a novel chemical approach to bed bug destruction. In 2008, a study was conducted on bed bug resistance to several new and old insecticides and the results are listed in order from most effective to least effective: lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, carbaryl, imidacloprid, fipronil, permethrin, diazinon, spinosin, dichlorvos, and chlorphenapyr, and DDT. [6] Note that the first is lambda-cyhalothrin, which is itself a pyrethroid insecticide - primarily used as a treatment for cotton crops in the past, so bed bugs have not yet developed genetic resistance to it. Chlorpyrifos was used as a drug with long-term efficacy until the 1990s, but the biocidal declaration EC 98/8 [7] banned its use as of August 2008. [8] Some manufacturers also offer fumigants that contain sulfuryl fluoride. disadvantage Non-residual treatments such as steaming and vacuuming are best for preventing mattresses, pillows, and quilts from being contaminated with pesticides. The potential health effects of pesticides on humans and pets range from allergic reactions to cancer and acute neurotoxicity [10] [11] [12] should be taken into consideration [13] as well due to the effect of pesticides, bed bugs spread to nearby dwellings. Bed bugs prefer to hide in or around bed frames, but it is still a good idea to cover mattresses and bedding with tight cotton sleeves to keep them away. Pesticide resistance Bed bugs are highly resistant to a variety of insecticides including DDT and organophosphates. [14] [15] Most of the population has developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Although not often effective now, pyrethroid resistance allows research into new chemicals that act in different ways, so chemical management can continue to be part of the solution to bed bug infestations. [16] There is a growing interest in synthetic pyrethroids and the insecticide pyrrole chlorphenacet. Sometimes insect growth regulators such as butadiene (Gentrol) are also used. [17] Arkansas residents have been found to have a high resistance to DDT, with the lethal dose exceeding 50,000 parts per million. [18] In studies conducted in Africa, it is widely believed that DDT makes bed bugs more active. [19] Bed bugs' resistance to pesticides appears to be increasing exponentially. Bed bug populations in the United States are thousands of times more tolerant of pyrethroids than laboratory bed bugs. [20] New York City bed bugs have been found to be 264 times more resistant to deltamethrin than Florida bed bugs due to mutations and evolution. [21] Products developed in mid-2010 combined neonicotinoids with pyrethroids, but according to a January 2016 survey in the Journal of Medical Entomology, bed bug resistance in two major US cities now includes neonicotinoids. Population genetics that detects high levels of genetic variation using mitochondrial DNA markers. [23] This indicates that the bed bug populations studied did not experience a single genetic bottleneck as expected from pesticide control in the 1940s and 1950s, but instead, these populations may have been retained in other hosts, such as the class of birds and bats. . In contrast to the large amount of genetic variation observed with mitochondrial DNA markers, no genetic difference was observed in mitochondrial DNA markers. This suggests that increased gene flow in previously isolated bed bug populations and, in the absence of barriers to gene flow, insecticide resistance may be rapid. physical isolation Ads Attempts to isolate humans through a variety of devices and methods include compressed, insect-resistant bed sheets, bed-bottom trench devices, double-sided tape, and other obstructions. However, even if the bed is separate, a bed bug infestation can easily occur if the bed itself is free of bed bugs, or if it is infested again. It is very convenient to put medium-sized items in a clear, airtight plastic bag (such as those used for freezing; there are also larger models). Once closed, the seal should be checked by pressing on the bag and making sure that no air is leaking. It is also appropriate to call these sealed bags "contaminated" / "disinfected"

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